How should a muslim believe in the Names and Attributes of Allah?

The creed of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah in regard to Allaah’s Names and Attributes

Question: What is the creed of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah in regard to Allaah’s Names and Attributes? And what is the difference between a Name and an Attribute? And does affirmation of a Name necessitate affirmation of an Attribute, and (likewise) does affrimation of an Attribute necessitate affirmation of a Name?

Response: The creed of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah in regard to Allaah’s Names and His Attributes is affriming that which Allaah has affirmed for himself from the Names and Attributes, without:

1) tahreef (changing/distorting a Name and/or Attribute of Allaah to other than its true meaning, i.e. from Allaah to al-Laat, and al-‘Azeez to al-‘Uzzah);

2) ta’teel (denying some or all of Allaah’s Names and Attributes);

3) takyeef (questioning as to “how” (Allaah’s Name or Attribute is), i.e. How does Allaah descend, etc.?);

4) tamtheel (to imply a similarity between Allaah’s Names and Attributes and that of His creation).

And the difference between a Name and an Attribute is that a Name is that which Allaah has named Himself by; and an Attribute is that which Allaah has described Himself by. And between them is a clear difference.

So a Name is that which is considered a Name of Allaah (Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala), (and that) which incorporates an Attribute.

And affirmation of a Name necessitates affirmation of an Attribute. For example:

al-Ghafoor (the Most Forgiving) is a Name, and (its affirmation) necessitates the (affirmation of the) Attribute of Maghfirah (Forgiveness);

And ar-Raheem (the Most Merciful) is a Name and (its affirmation) necessitates the affirmation of ar-Rahmah (Mercy).

And the affirmation of an Attribute does not necessitate the affirmation of a Name. For example: al-Kalaam (Speech) does not necessitate the affirmation of the Name al-Mutakallim (the Speaker) for Allaah.

So, based upon this, the Names are more wider (in scope), since every Name encompasses an Attribute, however, every Attribute does not encompass a Name.

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen
Fataawa Arkaan al-Islaam – Page 73, Fatwa No.30

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Testification of one’s eemaan because he regularly attends the masaajid

Testification of one’s eemaan because he regularly attends the masaajid
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Question: Is it permissible to bear witness to someone’s eemaan (faith) just because he regularly goes to the masjid, as occurs in the hadeeth?

Response: Yes. No doubt, whoever attends the prayers in the masaajid, then his attendance in this regard is evidence as to his eemaan, since nothing but his eemaan in Allaah (Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala) caused him to leave his house and exhert himself to go to the masjid.

And as for the questioner saying ((as occurs in the hadeeth)), then he is referring to that which is narrated from the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam):

((If you see a man regularly attending the masaajid, then bear witness to his eemaan)), [Transmitted by at-Tirmidhee, No.2617]

However, this hadeeth is weak, and not authenticated from the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam).

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen
Fataawa Arkaan al-Islaam – Page 34, Fatwa No.11

What is the first obligation upon the creation?

The first obligation upon creation
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Question: What is the first obligation upon creation?

Response: The first obligation upon creation is the first thing to which they are called to. The Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) explained to Mu’aadh ibn Jabal, when he sent him to Yemen, and told him:

((Indeed you are going to the People of the Book, so the first thing to which you shall call them to is the testification that there is no god except Allaah,and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allaah…)), [Transmitted by Imaam al-Bukhaaree – The Book of Zakaah, Numbers 1458, 1496; and Imaam Muslim – The Book of Eemaan, Numbers 29, 30, 31].

So this is the first obligation upon the servant (of Allaah), that he singles out Allaah (alone for worship), and he testifies to His messenger (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) who came (forth) with the message (of Islaam).

And by singling out Allaah (Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala) (alone for worship), and testifying to His messenger (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) who came (forth) with the message (of Islaam), one actualises purity of intention and adherence (to the messenger’s teachings), both of which are conditions for the acceptance of all forms of worship.

So this is the first obligation upon the servant (of Allaah), that he singles out Allaah (alone for worship), and he testifies to (all of) His messengers (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) who came (forth) with the (same) message.

So the testification that there is no god except Allaah (alone) incorporates tawheed (singling out Allaah alone for worship) in its entirety.

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen
Fiqh al-‘Ibaadaat – Question 4, Page 18

Whoever abuses the religion and the prophets, what happens to them?

Whoever abuses the religion and the prophets
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Question: What is the ruling regarding someone who abuses the religion or any of the prophets?

Response: Anyone who abuses the religion or abuses Allaah or His messenger, then he is a kaafir – out of the fold of Islaam, and we seek refuge in Allaah (from that). (This is the case) even if he believes he is a Muslim. Even the people of knowledge have said: Indeed whoever abuses Allaah, then he is a kaafir, even if he was joking. And the evidence they use is His (Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala) saying:

{If you ask them, they declare: “We were only talking idly and joking.” Say: “Was it at Allaah, and His Aayaat and His Messenger that you were mocking?” Make no excuse; you have disbelieved after you had believed}, [Soorah at-Towbah, Aayahs 65-66].

So, everyone who abuses Allaah or His messenger, or His Book, or His religion, or any of the prophets (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) then he is a kaafir. And it is upon these people to repent to Allaah (Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala) and return to Him (to Islaam), otherwise they will be given the glad tidings of the Fire of Hell.

We ask Allaah to guide them, and Allaah is the Expounder of success.

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen
Fataawa Manaar al-Islaam – Question 8, Page 25

What happens to the people that were not introduced to Islam?

The final destination of Ahlul-Fitrah

Question: What is the final destination of those who lived during the period of the messenger of Allaah, ‘Eesaa (Jesus) (`alayhis-salaam), and before the beginning of the mission of our messenger, Muhammad (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam). Are they considered to belong to Ahlul-Fitrah?

Response: The correct statement is that Ahlul-Fitrah are divided into two categories: The first category is the one before whom the evidence is established, and he recognised the truth, yet followed what he found his forefathers following. In this case, there is no excuse for him and he is among the inhabitants of the Fire; As for the one before whom the evidence has not been established, his matter is for Allaah, the Almighty and Majestic, to decide. And we do not know his final destination. This is because we do not know of a Sharee’ah text (ruling) for that case. But in the case of one about whom it is confirmed that he will be in the Fire based upon authentic evidence, then he is in the Fire.

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen
Fataawa Islaamiyyah – Volume 1, Page 108

The meaning of the Prophetic statement: ((All of them will be in the Fire, except one))

The meaning of the Prophetic statement: ((All of them will be in the Fire, except one))

Question: What is the meaning of the following hadeeth:

((My ummah will be divided into seventy three sects. All of them will be in the Fire except one?)), [Saheeh Muslim, no.976]

Who is that sect ? And will the seventy two sects live forever in the Fire, as the mushrik will or not? And does the term “ummah” of the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) apply to thos who follow him as well as those who do not, or is it to the former only?

Response: What is meant by the term “ummah” in this hadeeth is the ummah of response (ummatul-ijaabah – those who responded to the call to Islaam after having been invited), which shall be divided into seventy three sects; seventy two of which are deviant, who practice innovated religious practices that do not constitute apostacy. Each shall be punished in accordance to the innovations and deviation (it practiced), except for those who Allaah pardons and forgives. Their final abode will be Jannah. The only sect that will be safe is Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, who adhere to the Sunnah of the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) and hold fast to what he and his companions (radhi-yallaahu ‘anhum) were holding to. It is they about whom the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) said:

((A group of my ummah shall remain steadfast, on the truth, victorious, unharmed by those who oppose them, and do not support them, until the death or until the Day of Resurrection)), [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, nos.71 and 3641, and Saheeh Muslim, no.1920]

As for those whose innovation casts them out of Islaam, they belong to the ummah of invitation (ummatud-da’wah – those to whom the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) was sent to invite to Islaam), not the ummatul-ijaabah. They shall remain in the Hell Fire forever, and this is the most valid opinion.

It is also said that the term “ummah” in this hadeeth means ummatud-da’wah, which is a general term indicating all those to whom the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) was sent (i.e. mankind) those who believe and those who do not believe. Whereas the term “the saved sect” is the ummatul-ijaabah, which strictly applies to those who believe in the Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam), truthfully and die in such a state (of belief). This is the sect that whill be saved from the Fire; either by prior punishment or without prior punishment, and their final abode will be Jannah, (inshaa.-Allaah).

As for the seventy two sects (in the second opinion) they are all, excluding the saved sect, disbelievers who will live forever in the Fire. Hence, it is clear that the ummatud-da’wah is more general in connotation than the ummatul-ijaabah. That is to say, whoever belongs to the ummatul-ijaabah belongs to the ummatud-da’wah, while not everyone of the ummatud-da’wah belongs to the ummatul-ijaabah.

And with Allaah lies all success and may Allaah send prayers and salutations upon our Prophet (sal-Allaahu `alayhe wa sallam) and his family and his companions.

The Permanent Committee for Islaamic Research and Fataawa
Fataawa Islaamiyyah – Volume 1, Page 16

WHERE IS ALLAH???

Where is Allaah?

Question: What is the ruling regarding those who say: “Indeed Allaah is not below and nor above, and nor to the right and nor to the left, and nor outside of this world and nor inside it, etc…”?

Response: They are regarded as innovators (mubtadi’ah).

And we believe that indeed Allaah has ascended over His ‘Arsh (Mighty Throne), an ascension befitting His Majesty, as Allaah (Subhaanahu wa Ta’aala) says:

{The Most Gracious (Allaah) rose over (Istawaa) the (Mighty) Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty)}, [Soorah TaaHaa, Aayah 5]

…and we believe in His statement and disbelieve in the statement of the Mu’tazilah. And certainly, I advise the reading of “al-‘Uloo lil-‘Alee al-Ghaffaar” of Imaam ath-Thahabee and it’s summary by Shaykh al-Albaanee.

Shaykh Muqbil al-Waadi’ee
Ijaabatus-Saa.il ‘alaa Ahammil-Masaa.il – Question 152, Page 300

The importance of Tawheed

On the Importance of Tawhid
Author: Shaikh Muhammad bin Jameel Zainoo
Source: The Methodology of the Saved Sect (trans. Abu Nasir)
Article ID : TAW010007  [22351]  

1) Verily, Allaah has created the world and everything in it in order to worship Him alone. He sent the Messenger to call the people to Tawheed and the Noble Qur’aan is concerned with the aqeedah of tawheed in most of its chapters, and it explains the harm of shirk for the individual and the society. Shirk is the reason for destruction in this life and the reason for eternal destruction in the Fire of the Hereafter.2) Verily, all the Messengers began their call with Tawheed, which they were commanded by Allaah to convey it to the people. He, the Most High, said:We have not sent before you from the Messengers, except We inspired to him that He is the only One worthy of worship, so worship Him. [21:25]The Messenger of Allaah stayed in Makkah for thirteen years while he called his people to the Tawheed of Allaah and he called to Him alone without associating anything with Him. It was regarding this issue that Allaah revealed the following verse to His Noble Messenger:

Say: Verily I call to my Lord and I do not ascribe any partners to Him at all. [72:20]The Noble Messenger brought up his followers upon Tawheed from the time of childhood and he said to the son of his uncle, his cousin ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Abbaas: “When you ask, then ask Allaah, and when you seek help, then seek help from Allaah.” [Hasan Saheeh, Tirmidhi]. This Tawheed is in reality the religion of Islaam, which is built upon it, and anything other than it is not accepted by Allaah.3) Verily, the Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) taught his Companions to begin their call to the people with tawheed, so he said to Mu’aadh ibn Jabal, when he (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) sent him to Yemen: “So let the first thing you call them to, be the testification that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah.” And in another narration: “…that they worship Allaah alone.” [Bukhari and Muslim]

4) Tawheed is embodied in the testification that “None has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah.” Its meaning is that there is no one who is worthy of deserving worship except Allaah, and there is no worship except that which the Messenger of Allaah came with. Iris this testification which allows a unbeliever to enter into Islaam, since it is the key to Paradise, and the one who testifies to it and believes it enters into Paradise as long as he does not invalidate it by shirk or a word of disbelief.

5) The disbelieving Quraish offered the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) kingship, wealth and wives and other than that from the pleasures of this life in exchange for him abandon the call to tawheed, and abaudon the attacks against the idols. However, he did not desire that from them, rather lie continued his call and endured the onslaught along with his Companions, until the call to tawliced was victorious after thirteen years, after which Makkah was conquered and the idols were destroyed. The Messenger of Allaah # recited

Truth has come and falsehood has vanished, surely falsehood is ever bound to vanish. [17:81]

6) Tawheed is the preoccupation of a Muslim in his life, so he begins his life with Tawheed and he ends his life with Tawheed. Ilis task in life is to establish Tawheed and the call to Tawheed, since Tawheed unifies the believers and gathers them upon the statement of Tawheed.

So we ask Allaah to make the statement of Tawheed (Laa ilaaha lila Allaah) our last words in this world and we ask Him to gather the Muslims upon the statement of Tawheed.